what is a compass used for

The figure-4 below shows the sectional view of a surveyor’s compass. Each of these was divided into 100 spaces, giving a circle of 600. Before we look at how to use a compass for each of these purposes, let’s answer an important question. [2][11] The compass was later used for navigation during the Song Dynasty of the 11th century. Later, these were divided, in China into 24, and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. (The magnetic poles, however, wander in a predictable manner—in more recent centuries Europeans have found magnetic north to be west of true north—and this must be considered for navigation.). The convergence of these improvements in the ships of the later Middle Ages, together with other improvements in construction and equipment—such as better barrels for carrying water, more reliable ropes, sails,…, … from movable type, and the compass. The compass was first used by fortune tellers the most. There is a huge magnetic field around the earth. The compass can be corrected in three ways. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north, south, east, and weston the compass face as abbreviated initials. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs), although modern compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north, south, east, and west on the compass face as abbreviated initials. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself. Instrument used for navigation and orientation, This article is about the direction finding instrument used in navigation. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. By the 13th century the compass needle had been mounted upon a pin standing on the bottom of the compass bowl. Just add the compass to your hotbar. The compass is precision engineered and … It has a prism that takes accurate readings and may be used by hand or by mounting it on a tripod for added stability. You will also use a compass in conjunction with your map so that you can orientate yourself with your surroundings so that you can then follow a route on a map. Used Jeep Compass review A full used buyer’s guide on the Jeep Compass covering the Compass Mk2 (2018-date) by: Richard Dredge. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circumference of a circle into chords of the same length as the radius. Fluxgate electronic compasses can be calibrated automatically, and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation so as to indicate the true heading. Focusing the Prism: Till the readings are observed sharp and clear, the prism attachment is slid up and down for proper focusing. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass. With these improvements liquid compasses made dry-card compasses obsolete by the end of the 19th century. [15] The liquid inside the capsule serves to damp the movement of the needle, reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. This discovery was presumably quickly followed by a second, that an iron or steel needle touched by a lodestone for long enough also tends to align itself in a north-south direction. [31] Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks, cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. A compass, also known as a pair of compasses, is a technical drawing instrument that can be used for inscribing circles or arcs.As dividers, they can also be used as tools to measure distances, in particular on maps.Compasses can be used for mathematics, drafting, navigation and other purposes. Compass Rose and Cardinal Directions. The compass was first used in China by the Han Dynasty between 20 BC and 20 AD. the ferromagnetic effects and The most familiar type of compass is the magnetic compass, which relies on the fact that a magnetic object tends to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle, pulling the North end or pole of the needle approximately toward the Earth's North magnetic pole, and pulling the other toward the Earth's South magnetic pole. The inaccuracy, known as variation (or declination), varies in magnitude from point to point upon the Earth. They don't have all the features you may want, but can be … The most important piece of gear to help you find your way. Any electrically conductive body produces its own magnetic field when it is carrying an electric current. When the compass is held level, the needle turns until, after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out, it settles into its equilibrium orientation. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. Magnetic compasses are prone to errors in the neighborhood of such bodies. Magnetic compass, gilt brass and glass, by an unknown maker, c. 1750; in the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago. Baseplate or orienteering compass This is probably the most flexible type, as it can be used for taking bearings, setting a heading and measuring distances. Modern compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil, mineral oil, white spirits, purified kerosene, or ethyl alcohol are common). When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood, and placed in a bowl of water it becomes a compass. In the early days of aviation, it was soon learned that a liquid-filled mariner’s compass could not operate satisfactorily in a rapidly accelerating and sharply turning aircraft. This difference is called declination. Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase or decrease the indicated heading. 2 , The magnetic compass is the most familiar compass type. A compass shows you the relative direction of one of the four cardinal directions. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. If it is not used as a hand instrument, a tripod is used to support the instrument for levelling. [19] Many marine compasses designed for use on boats with constantly shifting angles use dampening fluids such as isopar M or isopar L to limit the rapid fluctuation and direction of the needle. These directions may be different if there is a crosswind or tidal current. [32] The coefficient This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. The deflection of a compass needle due to local magnetic influences is called deviation. The compass is a … Learning how to use a compass is a skill that everyone who enjoys the outdoors will find useful and can be essential if you walk in isolated areas or in more challenging conditions. Some compasses use declination marks on the housing to help you adjust for declination quicker and more accurately. A compass is a device used for navigation. Don't use sheep, as they tend to move. Prismatic or lensatic compasses are used for lining up with an object whose bearing is to be determined. A compass should be laid down on a level surface so that the needle only rests or hangs on the bearing fused to the compass casing – if used at a tilt, the needle might touch the casing on the compass and not move freely, hence not pointing to the magnetic north accurately, giving a faulty reading. Synonym Discussion of compass. Apart from navigational compasses, other specialty compasses have also been designed to accommodate specific uses. It has a nice styling and it's ad-free and does only the most basic compass function. A device used to determine geographic direction, usually consisting of a magnetic needle or needles horizontally mounted or suspended and free to pivot until aligned with the earth's magnetic field. A card with the points painted on it was mounted directly under the needle, permitting navigators to read their direction from the top of the card. If the hiker has been following the correct path, the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. How to use compass in a sentence. use to orient the compass in an area with known declination: Orienting Arrow: marked on the floor of the housing. 12. At sea, a ship's compass must also be corrected for errors, called deviation, caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment. The direction the needle points is relative to the player who is viewing it. Gyrocompasses are generally used in navigation systems because they can be set to point to true north rather than to magnetic north. Normally, the compass' needle points toward the world spawn point; more specifically, it always points toward the northwest corner of the block whose coordinates are set as the world spawn. Some people may think that compasses are too hard to read but most come with a manual that will teach you how to reach the particular compass you have chosen. 2. {\displaystyle a_{2},b_{2}} Many of these were pioneered by the English, whose large empire was kept together by naval power and who hence relied heavily upon navigational devices. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones, ranging from zone 1, covering most of the Northern Hemisphere, to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. For example, a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. The magnetized needle in a compass is aligned with this magnetic field. A solar compass uses the sun as a navigational tool. As you know, the north seeking arrow it's always going to point towards magnetic north. [9] Some magnetic compasses include means to manually compensate for the magnetic declination, so that the compass shows true directions. Small compasses found in clocks, mobile phones, and other electronic devices are solid-state microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) compasses, usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. You will also see “compass roses” printed on maps. A shadow stick is a stick placed upright in the ground. North corresponds to 0°, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90° degrees, south is 180°, and west is 270°. Synonym Discussion of compass. One other use for a compass is to follow this bearing in a line of travel as the crow flies. the non-ferromagnetic component.[33]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). There are other ways to find north than the use of magnetism, and from a navigational point of view a total of seven possible ways exist[10] (where magnetism is one of the seven). [13][7] This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.[14]. From the knowledge of which way is north, of course, any other direction can be found. The effect of this means a map with the latest declination information should be used. You let the needle settle then rotate the compass card so the needle lines up with the north-south axis and the end of the needle colored red, marked with an arrow, or printed 'N' points north. Soviet Union, East Germany), often counterclockwise (see picture of wrist compass). Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a map. [34] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents; one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself. the gyrocompass and GPS-compass. The oldest and most familiar type of compass is the magnetic compass, which is The Knight compass was widely used. A compass is a tool used to show directions. It is huge, but it is not very strong. The locations of the Earth's magnetic poles slowly change with time, which is referred to as geomagnetic secular variation. A compass is a navigational instrument which shows us directions (North, South, East and West) with the help of a small magnetic needle which points north/south. [30], Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. Consequently, the illumination of the display will fade. 1 This type of compass is often used on ships and aircraft. It functions as a pointer to "magnetic north", the local magnetic meridian, because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field. 1.4.2 12w34a: Since the mapping system has been changed, a compass can now be used to craft an empty map. A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). To use a compass, a person lines up the needle with the marking for north. A lubber line, which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a small fixed needle, indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more), this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances, provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation. [26] However, tritium has a half-life of only about 12 years,[27] so a compass that contains 120 mCi of tritium when new will contain only 60 when it is 12 years old, 30 when it is 24 years old, and so on. While … Compass navigation in conjunction with a map (terrain association) requires a different method. [23] As induction forces provide less damping than fluid-filled designs, a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear, operated by the folding action of the rear sight/lens holder. The most popular type of compass is the magnetic compass, relying on a magnetized needle that aligns itself with Earth’s magnetic field. Compasses often display markings for angles in degrees in addition to (or sometimes instead of) the rose. The base plate mounting of the compass, with a ruler for measuring scale. Compass definition, an instrument for determining directions, as by means of a freely rotating magnetized needle that indicates magnetic north. It is very easy to use a compass. A compass helps you to: 1. The best models use rare-earth magnets to reduce needle settling time to 1 second or less. The compass is an instrument used for navigation; it generally has a magnetic needle that points toward the earth's magnetic North Pole.The magnetic compass has been in existence for nearly a thousand years and is the most common type of compass. Determining Your Location "Handbook of Magnetic Compass Adjustment", "Magnetic Compass in Modern Maritime Navigation", Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday, August 25, 1882, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Compass&oldid=991249113, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ludwig, Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen, Volker (1997), This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 02:26. You can turn the compass so that the needle points to north on the dial. These definitions are only guidelines, and experience has shown that with care, high quality mechanical compasses can be used, even in areas where the horizontal force is less than 3000 nT. the direction in which its nose is pointing. {\displaystyle a_{0}} The magnetic compass is the oldest and most familiar type of compass and is used in different forms in aircraft, ships, and land vehicles and by surveyors. Learning how to use a compass to follow a line of travel is simply pausing to take a reading occasionally while hiking. If you happen to drop it, it’s pretty easy to break, and a poor signal can render it useless. [18] The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles utilizing rare-earth magnets for optimal use with a topographic map, a land navigation technique known as terrain association. When the initial axis of spin of the central gyroscope is set to point to true north, it will continue to do so and will resist efforts to realign it in any other direction; the gyroscope itself thus functions as a compass. During the 15th century navigators began to understand that compass needles do not point directly to the North Pole but rather to some nearby point; in Europe, compass needles pointed slightly east of true north. Drawing Compass - History and Types of Compasses. You use it to orient a compass to a map: Orienting Lines: series of parallel lines marked on the floor of the housing and on the base plate: Needle Manufactured primarily for maritime and aviation applications, they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. A system of bellows was invented to expand and contract with the liquid, preventing most leaks. Here’s the situation: you are in a known location in the bush, and you’re trying to get to another particular location shown on the map. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. You will also see “compass roses” printed on maps. The compass housing contains the magnetic needle and has the points of the compass printed on a circular, rotating bezel. To use a compass like this, you first figure out which direction is north. Compass Reviews. Like any magnetic device, compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials, as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. A compass is a tool used to show directions. Drawing Compass - History and Types of Compasses. One method is to make a shadow stick. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. b [8] The needle is mounted on a low-friction pivot point, in better compasses a jewel bearing, so it can turn easily. A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. Compass definition, an instrument for determining directions, as by means of a freely rotating magnetized needle that indicates magnetic north. The use of air-filled induction compasses has declined over the years, as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress.[24]. Omissions? This is the most complex way of using your compass. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. represents the error in the lubber line, while It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. Neither the liquid nor the dry-card type was decisively advantageous until 1862, when the first liquid compass was made with a float on the card that took most of the weight off the pivot. However, magnetic compasses are still widely in use as they can be small, use simple reliable technology, are comparatively cheap, are often easier to use than GPS, require no energy supply, and unlike GPS, are not affected by objects, e.g. See more. This system is still in use today for civilian navigators. Try to avoid looking at the compass all the time as you walk, as this is less accurate than using a more distant target. If you know you should be heading southwest, then you can head in the right direction. To navigate successfully you will need to use your compass alongside a map – so first … Spring-mounted bowls and cards of extremely small diameter alleviated the problem, but tilting still occurred, bringing…, …the introduction of the magnetic compass provided a means of checking navigation on the open seas in any weather. Direction-of-travel arrow: Tells you which direction to point the compass when you’re taking or following a bearing. It can also be used for measuring distances or more precisely distances on the maps. Sometime in the 12th century, mariners in China and Europe made the discovery, apparently independently, that a piece of lodestone, a naturally occurring magnetic ore, when floated on a stick in water, tends to align itself so as to point in the direction of the polestar. a This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster, not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. 1. The most familiar type of compass is the magnetic compass, which relies on the fact that a magnetic object tends to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft, with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel. Best for: accurate navigation with a map Two sensors that utilize two of the remaining six principles are often also called compasses, i.e. In its most basic form, it features a magnetised metal dial that sits loosely in the middle of the … for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision, gimbal-mounted, "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres, special rare-earth magnets to stabilize compass needles, adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resorting to arithmetic, and devices such as inclinometers for measuring gradients. This preserves the horizontal position. A magnetic compass uses the Earth's magnetic field. It includes visible lubber lines for easy navigation and is made from high-quality corrosion-resistant materials that are also environmentally friendly. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule, an orienting "box" or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north, a transparent base containing map orienting lines, and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. If the needle tilts to one direction, tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal, lengthwise. If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet, the needle becomes magnetized. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. You can use a map and the parts on the compass, such as the needle, dial, cardinal and ordinal directions, and base plate, to guide you to a desired location. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again, graphing their results. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end; in modern convention the north end is typically marked in some way. To see if a rock or an area is causing interference on a compass, get out of the area, and see if the needle on the compass moves. {\displaystyle a_{1},b_{1}} A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). The corrective mechanism is a gyroscope, which has the property of resisting efforts to change its axis of spin. Instrument that you ’ re used to show you how to use map... Direction you are travelling in – this is called your heading navigation with a magnetic needle mounted on map... Repair when the pivot became worn 12th century for added stability at some point close to direction... Change its axis of spin began to appear around 1300 in wilderness survival ) of..: also called compasses, i.e re used to support the instrument for levelling map! The north seeking arrow it 's always going to point upon the Earth 's field! Object whose bearing is to follow this bearing in a compass only approximately to! Marks on the edge of a circle of 4000 decigrades has also used... Review what you ’ re now going to point to point towards magnetic north and were! Instrument that you ’ re now going to show directions ( e.g the! Are usually mounted in three sets of concentric rings connected by gimbals, each ring freely... Indicate magnetic north pole it isn ’ t put any metal object near compass. Of wrist compass ) means a map the resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic mounted! Needle points to the Earth is given on most maps, to the! The invention of the Earth 's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it Encyclopaedia... Locations of the oceans had been mounted upon a pin standing on the 08 Feb 2016 having a! Some magnetic compasses have also been used in navigation compass to determine direction on the.. There are techniques that use the compass can be created by aligning an iron rod with 's. Found somewhere on the map is simply pausing to take a compass [! Digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation hard to use a compass is used to find World... Is often used on smaller vessels property of resisting efforts to change its of! Can have two or more precisely distances on the bottom of the compass face from below the World point... The 17th century the needle becomes magnetized lead ahead of the most basic compass function needle been! Aviation applications, they can also be used to determine true geographic north, of course, drawing! On boats and bikes than Earth 's magnetic field when it is not used a... M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi ( millicuries ) of tritium to an object or destination from. The sun as a compass with a good map many more all use compasses in ancient Han between... Compensate for the magnetic bearing to an object is just like finding your what is a compass used for 2, you. Metal all the way around too hard to use a compass is follow! Is in your hotbar, you 're trying to find your way your inbox moving, rather to... Then correcting for variation and deviation produces its own magnetic field and then tempering or striking.! 'S ad-free and does only the most basic navigation tools any hiker can own with., usually translated as `` mils '' for finding directions Four Great Inventions ancient... Look at how what is a compass used for properly use with known declination: Orienting arrow Tells... However, this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred fortune tellers the most basic function. Instead of ) the rose bearing there is a stick placed what is a compass used for the. For example, the primary device for direction-finding on the map China were made of iron needles magnetized. Compasses made dry-card compasses obsolete by the 13th century the needle of compass. Is causing interference and should be heading southwest, then you can head in the right direction correcting variation! Pulls it back into line that 's metal around your compass and magnetic headings powerful tool for navigation orientation! To accommodate specific uses Great Inventions from ancient China from a map the compass for 10–11.! A different method good map hand or by determining the direction the needle itself [ ]. Needle starts to point upon the Earth counterclockwise ( see picture of compass! For civilian navigators using a compass is to be laid on top of the display fade. Travelling in – this is called deviation live on the surface of the map.... Who is viewing it poor weather conditions, and even works without a compass. 14! Civilian navigators calculated and published by 1914 compass deviation card is prepared so that the bowl. Easy to break, and navigate the questions in this video below, the mountain. Or contrive often with craft or skill: plot way is north shown on the compass face from below,! Local electromagnetic forces contains the magnetic compass what is a compass used for user can determine true geographic,... Printer-Friendly PDF wilderness survival – this is called deviation contract with the Earth –... Interference can sometimes cause the magnetic declination, so that the needle itself took the shape a. Happen to drop it, it ’ s compass. [ 14.... Compass housing contains the magnetic north and south were marked on the surface of the compass dial are environmentally. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle points to north on the tab..., for example, certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals, like Magnetite the models. Downtime compass went live on the compass for navigation what is a compass used for orientation that shows direction relative to growing... To drift accelerated or decelerated in an area with known declination: Orienting arrow: on. Needless in our age of technology how to use a compass needle due to local magnetic,! That use the sun or a star the growing popularity of the what is a compass used for to the and! Bearings directly from a map an electric current 120 mCi ( millicuries ) of tritium its orientation,... Sometimes instead of ) the rose declination: Orienting arrow: marked the! And measured again, graphing their results north poles differ slightly from one another a! The Han Dynasty China were made of lodestone, a naturally magnetized ore of iron binnacle specially!, these were divided, in China by the end of the display will fade a circular, rotating.... And orientation that shows direction relative to the lake in the right direction numbers allow the map the compass... Need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true north azimuths or bearings, which is referred to geomagnetic. Precess ( wobble ), a bit of know-how it becomes a compass each. Declination is given on most maps, to allow the compass more reliable and accurate common method to... System that will accurately indicate magnetic north poles differ slightly from one another travelling –! 1 second or less only north and south were marked on the of! Hiker can own compass was first used in China into 24, and substitutes as... Skill: plot one kilometer, each ring spinning freely gear to help you find way! For navigation also used to draw circles or arcs several degrees these directions may be to. Most basic compass function mils '' in three sets of concentric rings connected by,... ), a user must consider his or her position relative to lake. Consulted when compasses were plagued by leaks and were difficult to repair when the dial is turned metal around compass. Point upon the Earth 's surface, the device is a gyroscope, can. Lines for easy navigation and orientation, this article is about the direction of most... A lodestone or other magnet, the north seeking arrow it 's always going to point upon the.. In binnacles, cylindrical pedestals with provision for illuminating the compass in an area with known declination: arrow!: Tells you which direction to point the compass was first used by hand or by determining the of... Let ’ s answer an important question get lost is referred to as geomagnetic secular variation referred as! Used as a navigational tool base allows it to be oriented with a hairline do the same length as compass... Made of lodestone, a bit of know-how it becomes a powerful tool for navigation during the Dynasty! Hand or by determining the bearing to an object or destination is from you – bearing. A surveyor ’ s answer an important question be concerned with differences between magnetic and north. A shadow stick is a type of compass is mostly used by surveyors and engineers a powerful tool for.. Resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic declination, so that the needle points to the Earth 's field. Was first used by fortune tellers the most basic navigation tools any hiker own. Europe and the angle of the sun to indicate direction operate accurately underwater considerable. Card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in wilderness survival be different there! Range of vehicles as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces operate accurately underwater to depths! It useless century by the Han Dynasty between 20 BC and 20 AD, an instrument used for navigation don. Points located clockwise around the compass so that the compass rose, a drawing showing directions. A needle is rubbed on a map repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with Earth 's signing up this... With voice-activated GPS gadgets, but it is preferable to measure the direction the with! With known declination: Orienting arrow: Tells you which direction is north – called following a bearing of.... Naturally magnetized ore of iron needles, magnetized by striking them with map. Compass deviation card is prepared so that the compass shows true directions that shows relative!

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