phase contrast microscopy

Because of the spatial location of the circular phase-altering ring in the objective diffraction plane, only those wavefronts corresponding to low spatial frequencies diffracted by the specimen pass through the annulus of the phase plate. In fact, quantitative refractometry is often utilized to obtain refractive index values and for identification purposes. Another contributing factor to the halo artifact is the redistribution of light energy at the image plane, from regions where it is destructive to regions where it is constructive. The mechanism for generating relative phase retardation is a two-step process, with the diffracted waves being retarded in phase by a quarter wavelength at the specimen, while the surround waves are advanced (or retarded) in phase by a phase plate positioned in or very near the objective rear focal plane. However, in this case, both materials are sandwiched within the phase plate so that the undiffracted surround wavefront is the only species affected (attenuated and retarded in phase by 90 degrees). During the Second World War, the Zeiss Optical Works in Jena, Germany, was the first manufacturer to incorporate practical phase contrast optics into their microscopes. Phase Contrast Microscope Information. An overview of positive phase contrast is presented in the upper portion of Figure 6. This effect is particularly helpful in negative phase contrast, which produces a dark halo surrounding low frequency image detail. Consequently, the image produced at the intermediate image plane and the final image observed through the eyepieces (or recorded by a detector) represent inverse Fourier transforms of the diffraction patterns formed at the objective rear focal plane and the eyepoint (floating above the eyepiece front lens), respectively. Regardless of how the objective is manufactured, the most important point to remember is that every phase contrast objective is modified to include the phase plate, a feature that is absent from all other microscope objectives. Thus, the two wavefronts do not overlap to a significant extent, and occupy distinct portions of the objective rear focal plane. Other commercial products scrutinized by phase contrast optical techniques include clays, fats, oils, soaps, paints, pigments, foods, drugs, textiles, and other fibers. In addition, this plate contains phase retarding material designed to shift (retard) the phase of the diffracted light by 90 degrees. Find out information about phase microscope, phase-contrast microscope. 7. optical instrument used to increase the apparent size of an object. Undeviated and diffracted light collected by the objective is segregated at the rear focal plane by a phase plate and focused at the intermediate image plane to form the final phase-contrast image observed in the eyepieces. In conventional light microscopy, phase contrast can be employed to distinguish between structures of similar transparency, and to examine crystals on the basis of their double refraction. Phase Contrast can be performed in two different ways, on upright microscopes and inverted microscopes. Thus, when a coherent light wave emitted by the focused microscope filament passes through a phase specimen having a specific thickness (t) and refractive index (n), the wave is either increased or decreased in velocity. Phase Contrast Microscopy: A Simple Explanation. The thickness and refractive indices of the dielectric, metallic, and anti-reflective films, as well as those of the optical cement, are carefully selected to produce the necessary phase shift between the complementary and conjugate areas of the phase plate. The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the zeroth-order surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by the condenser annulus is smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Dark FieldBright Field Phase contrast Comparison of Light Microscopy 8. eg: The dynamic motility of. Explore the effects of changes to refractive index and thickness on optical path length, and discover how two specimens can have different combinations of these variables but still display the same path length. This two component helps to form the phase contrast, by separating the direct rays from the diffracted rays. Subcellular structures generate much smaller retardations. In brightfield illumination (Figure 2(a)), the cells appear semi-transparent with only highly refractive regions, such as the membrane, nucleus, and unattached cells (rounded or spherical), being visible. Wavefronts passing through the annulus illuminate the specimen and either pass through undeviated or are diffracted and retarded in phase by structures and phase gradients present in the specimen. This is obtained by separating the direct rays from the diffracted rays. A specially designed annular diaphragm, which is matched in diameter and optically conjugate to an internal phase plate residing in the objective rear focal plane, is placed in the condenser front focal plane. Douglas B. Murphy - Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Microscope Facility, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, 107 WBSB, Baltimore, Maryland 21205. Because of the varying refractive indices exhibited by these numerous intracellular structures, the interior of living cells, when viewed in a positive phase contrast microscope, can reveal an array of intensities ranging from very bright to extremely dark. An annular aperture in the diaphragm placed in the focal plane of the sub-stage condenser controls the illumination of the object. This effect is termed shade-off, and is frequently observed when examining extended planar specimens, such as material slabs (glass or mica), replicas, flattened tissue culture cells, and large organelles. In general, specimens having a higher refractive index than the surrounding medium appear dark on a neutral gray background, while those specimens that have a lower refractive index than the bathing medium appear brighter than the gray background. Prior to the introduction of phase contrast optical systems, cells and other semi-transparent specimens were rendered visible in brightfield microscopy by artificial staining techniques. The phase contrast microscopy is based on the principle that small phase changes in the light rays, induced by differences in the thickness and refractive index of the different parts of an object, can be transformed into differences in brightness or light intensity. Principle of Phase contrast Microscopy Phase relationships between the surround, diffracted, and particle (S, D, and P) waves in the region of the specimen at the image plane for brightfield microscopy (in the absence of phase contrast optical accessories) are presented in Figure 3. The mathematical relationship between the various light waves generated in phase contrast microscopy can be described simply as: Detection of the specimen image depends on the relative intensity differences, and therefore on the amplitudes, of the particle and surround (P and S) waves. Phase contrast is a method developed in the early 20th century by Frits Zernike. Reduction in halo and shading-off artifacts remains a primary concern in phase contrast microscopy. The net result is a 180-degree optical path difference between the surround and diffracted waves, which results in destructive interference for a high refractive index specimen at the image plane. Phase contrast microscopy requires special phase contrast objectives and a special phase contrast condenser. No special preparation of fixation or staining etc. The amplitude profiles of the destructively interfering waves for positive phase contrast are depicted in the upper graph of Figure 6. At the back focal plane of the objective develops an image. © 2020 Microbe Notes. Several microscope manufacturers offer a variety of phase contrast objectives having progressive degrees of contrast. In the central regions of a specimen, both the relative angles and the amount of diffracted light are dramatically reduced when compared to the edges. Phase contrast Microscopy- definition, principle, parts, uses, Applications of Phase contrast Microscopy. Phase-contrast imaging is a method of imaging that has a range of different applications. The optics will convert the differences in refractive index of the specimen into brightness differences. Phase contrast microscopy, first described in 1934 by Dutch physicist Frits Zernike, is a contrast-enhancing optical technique that can be utilized to produce high-contrast images of transparent specimens, such as living cells (usually in culture), microorganisms, thin tissue slices, lithographic patterns, fibers, latex dispersions, glass fragments, and subcellular particles (including nuclei and other organelles). Select options. Upright microscopes are the most common type of microscope, designed with the objective lenses positioned above the sample, looking downward and usually have shorter working distances Inverted microscopes are the most durable and easy to use for cell microscopy and tissue … Phase contrast is also insensitive to polarization and birefringence effects, which is a major advantage when examining living cells growing in plastic tissue culture vessels. The shade-off phenomenon is also commonly termed the zone-of-action effect, because central zones having uniform thickness in the specimen diffract light differently than the highly refractive zones at edges and boundaries. In many cases, the optical path difference can be quite large even though the thickness of the specimen is small. Designed with ❤️ by Sagar Aryal. If the phase retardation introduced by the specimen is large enough (a phase shift of the diffracted wave by approximately a half-wavelength), interference between the diffracted waves and the surround waves becomes constructive, rendering these specimens brighter than the surrounding background. The image of the aperture is formed at the rear focal plane of the objective. As a result, the dynamics of ongoing biological processes can be observed and recorded in high contrast with sharp clarity of minute specimen detail. The annular phase plate is placed at this back focal plane. A dark halo surrounds the specimen image when viewed with negative phase contrast optics (Figure 8(e)), and the shade-off transition ranges from bright at the edges to darker gray levels in the center. Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image. Phase contrast microscopy requires special phase contrast objectives and a special phase contrast condenser. Shade-off is another very common optical artifact in phase contrast microscopy, and is often most easily observed in large, extended phase specimens. It exploits differences in the refractive index of different materials to differentiate between structures under analysis. The cheek cells are epithelial cells and will be seen in large numbers. In optical terminology, phase plates that alter the phase of surround light relative to diffracted light by 90 degrees (either positive or negative) are termed quarter wavelength plates because of their effect on the optical path difference. In most cases, subcellular features (such as nucleoli) can be clearly distinguished as having dark contrast with apodized objectives, but these same features have bright halos or are imaged as bright spots using conventional phase contrast optics. Collectively, specimens readily imaged with brightfield illumination are termed amplitude objects (or specimens) because the amplitude or intensity of the illuminating wavefronts is reduced when light passes through the specimen. Our imaging system consists of a phase-contrast microscope outfitted with an external phase-shifting module. As discussed above, the optical path difference is derived from the product of the refractive index and the specimen (object) thickness, and is related to the relative phase shift between the specimen and background (diffracted and surround) waves. The positive phase plate produces dark contrast and contains a partially absorbing film designed to reduce the amplitude of the surround wavefront. Phase contrast microscopy • It is the first microscopic method which allow the observation of living cell. Also illustrated is the vector diagram for negative phase contrast, where the surround wave vector undergoes a 90-degree clockwise rotation. Apodized phase plates are useful for reducing the severity of halo, and specialized variable phase contrast systems can be fine-tuned to control these effects in order to optimize image quality and the fidelity of information obtained by the technique. Bright medium phase contrast objectives produce bright images on a medium gray background. 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